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Carly (Nesson) Fountain

Bio:


2014 B.S. Applied and Computational Mathematics, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Encoding Multi-layered Data into QR Codes for Increased Capacity and Security

  • ABSTRACT:

    Quick Response (QR) codes, currently used in marketing, warehouse management, product tracking, and other applications, is currently comprised of only black and white modules. The goal of this paper is to discuss the implementation of Colored QR codes in order to increase data capacity and security yet still maintain reasonably-sized codes. This objective will be completed by coloring various QR codes and using MATLAB to take advantage of the various color channels present. By layering colored QR codes, a layered code will present readers with enough information to obtain the original codes involved. This paper discusses methods for layering three base colors – Red, Green, and Blue – as well as six base colors – High Red, Low Red, High Green, Low Green, High Blue, and Low Blue.
    It was found that layering colored QR codes effectively increased the data capacity three-fold and six-fold for three base colors and six base colors, respectively. The layering and un-layering process was fairly simple with the use of some basic MATLAB commands.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Shelby Altena

Bio:


2018 B.S. Biochemistry, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Analysis of Tryptophan as a Non-toxic Ink for Covert Pharmaceutical Security Features

  • ABSTRACT:

    Counterfeit pharmaceuticals are a growing problem in both developed and developing nations world-wide and are an estimated 10% of pharmaceutical sales worldwide. Security features that are currently being used in the pharmaceutical industry are overt and include distinct size, shape, and color, security printing on packaging, and anti-tamper foils on over-the-counter medications. Covert security features added directly to the surface of pharmaceutical pills have the potential to decrease counterfeit drug trafficking and the number of lives lost to this illegal trade. Tryptophan, a non-toxic amino acid, was evaluated as a fluorescent ink for direct printing on pills due to its UV to UV fluorescence and minimal human toxicity. Tablets printed with patterns of the tryptophan ink were imaged using a 305±5 nm excitation source and a digital camera with the UV/IR filter removed. Tryptophan was fluorescent when deposited onto the surface of over-the-counter tablets both with and without film coatings. Imaging of the tryptophan on the tablets was possible with the modified digital camera and the fluorescence was not visible with the naked eye or common camera. The tryptophan ink developed in this study can be used as a covert security feature allowing for increased security in the pharmaceutical industry.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Julian Brackins

Bio:


2015  B.S Computer Science, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Smartphone Application Development for Reading

  • ABSTRACT:

    The wide-spread use of counterfeiting around the world has prompted research into various methods of product identication and authentication. Nanoparticle-based ink can be used to print invisible QR codes that are readable under a near-infrared laser. The objective of this project is to design a smartphone app capable of scanning covert QR codes for use with track and trace technologies. This objective will be fulfilled by designing an app with various features, such as scanning in low light and the ability to recognize barcodes printed in various colors.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Molly Cleland

Bio:


2016 B.S. Chemistry Major/Physics Minor, Chadron State College

 


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Real-Time Monitoring of Synthesis, Growth Dynamics, and Shell Addition for NaYF4: 17% Yb, 3% Er Upconversion Nanocrystals

  • ABSTRACT:

    This research focuses on the enhancement of lanthanide-doped upconversion luminescence in NaYF4: 17%Yb, 3% Er nanocrystals (UCNC) for security printing. Unlike typical downconversion fluorescent luminescence, UC luminescence refers to emission produced at wavelengths of shorter magnitudes than the irradiation source4. Solvent-dispersible UCNC doped with trivalent lanthanide ions are of particular interest for security printing applications. Passive shells of NaYF4 can be added to the UCNC to block surface quenching and improve emission brightness. Real-time monitoring of UC emission during the shell growth process is used to characterize the kinetics thereof. UCNC were synthesized using a scaled-up version of a method previously used in our group. Shells were then added in 57% oleic acid and 43% oleic acid, respectively. Shells were successfully added and emission intensity was greatly enhanced. Surface quenching was more greatly reduced in 43% oleic acid, presumably due to the thicker shell. In addition, real-time monitoring produced evidence of shell material adding during the heat-up stage.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Cecilia Douma

Bio:


2015 B.S. Chemistry, Luther College


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Security Printing of Covert Codes using NIR-to-NIR Upconversion Inks

  • ABSTRACT:

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) of β-phase NaYF4 doped with Yb and Tm exhibit ‘upconverted’ near-infrared 800 nm emission when excited with 980 nm light. This so-called NIR-to-NIR luminescence is of interest for security printing because both the NIR excitation and the upconverted NIR emission can pass through selective protective opaque ink or dye layers and cannot be detected by the naked eye. The intensity of the emission is affected by the concentration of Yb and Tm in the nanoparticles. In this report, we optimize dopant concentrations for the NIR emission. Working with collaborators at SDSM&T, we develop inks that can be used to print NIR-to-NIR upconversion images. We then demonstrate that these images can still be read using CCD cameras even when they are covered with visibly opaque protective coatings.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Montana Earle

Bio:


May 2017, B.S./B.A. Computer and Information Science/Mathematics, State University of New York at Potsdam, Potsdam, NY


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Hash-Chain Based Product Authentication Scheme

  • ABSTRACT:

    There have been many different product authentication schemes based on the cryptographic hash function. So far it seems that the hash chain is the least complex, yet has a lot of security issues. We are developing our scheme to combat these issues. Also, many people have been developing invisible inks and other such ways to mark products. Our scheme is being developed to provide a secure way of checking that these markers have not been tampered with or copied. This scheme is also being developed to be used by everyday consumers.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Albert Foster III

Bio:


2014 B.S. Applied Physics, Lock Haven University


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of Electrospun Nanofibers Embedded with Silver Nanoparticles

  • ABSTRACT:

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a fairly recent discovery that has allowed for single molecule detection. With this extremely sensitive technique, it is possible to have unprecedented security in terms of anti-counterfeit technologies along with many other applications. The challenge is to create cheap, robust, and versatile substrates with SERS capabilities. Electrospinning provides a simple and quick method for obtaining submicron polymer fibers in large quantities. By combining the electrospun fibers with silver nanoparticles, we found that this technique is a practical method in developing SERS substrates. In this study, conditions for fabricating extremely thin (less than 500 nm) and continuous nanofibers with well dispersed silver nanoparticles were optimized. The Raman signals for the optimized composite nanofibers were measured to determine the amount of enhancement using 4-MBA (mercaptobenzoic acid) as a target molecule. The polymer studied was poly (methyl methacrylate) and the solvents were dimethylformamide, chloroform, and 1.1.2.2-tetrachloroethane. It was found that using chloroform and dimethylformamide as co-solvents yielded the optimum fibers. The silver nanoparticles did have a significant magnification effect on the Raman signal when embedded into the nanofibers. A rough calculation showed that the enhancement factor was approximately 1×10+8.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Christine Ghetu

Bio:


2017 B.S. Forensic Science (Chemistry Emphasis)  Pennsylvania State University (Junior)


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Synthesizing and Printing Tungsten-Doped Vanadium Dioxide Nanoparticles

  • ABSTRACT:

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) has been synthesized by various methods to utilize its unique thermochromic and optical properties at a semiconductor to metal transition temperature of 68 °C. The goal of this study was to determine if printable vanadium dioxide particles could be synthesized with tungsten doping yielding particles with a phase transition temperature of 31-33 °C, and developed into an ink for printing a thermoresponsive security feature. This was carried out through two procedures using a precipitation synthesis and heat treatment, as well as a solvothermal solution synthesis. Printing was then attempted with an Optomec M3D and HP Thermal Inkjet Pipette System (TIPS) printers using a 70/30 isopropyl alcohol acetonitrile mixture and toluene as solvents.
    Vanadium dioxide was successfully synthesized, doped and dispersed into an ink. However, through the precipitation synthesis and heat treatment doping could not be accomplished to yield a phase transition at 31-33 °C, instead particles were doped over a wide range of atomic percentages to yield a sharp transition around 28 °C as well as a broad transition from 40-80 °C. Printing using the HP TIPS printer with the 70/30 diethylene glycol/acetonitrile solvent mixture containing vanadium dioxide nanoparticles was successful on paper as a substrate. Through the solvothermal synthesis printable vanadium dioxide nanoparticles were obtained. However, testing could not confirm the success of tungsten-doping. Printing using the Optomec M3D printer and vanadium dioxide nanoparticles dispersed in toluene as a solvent was successful on paper as a substrate.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Connor Holland

Bio:


2016 B.S., Engineering Physics, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, Weatherford, OK


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Polyaniline Nanofibers Applied to Security Printing and Anti-Counterfeiting Technology

  • ABSTRACT:

    Polymers have been a relatively new discovery in the field of chemistry. Polymers are groups of monomers that have bonded to each other to form long, complex strands. Polyaniline (PANI) was a polymer that was discovered nearly one hundred fifty years ago. The bulk properties of PANI have been well documented but approximately twenty-five years ago the discovery of a unique doping/de-doping mechanism at the nanoscale revitalized the research of this material. Due to the doping mechanism PANI can be found to exist in four states. The emeraldine salt state of PANI has been documented to be conductive. By printing this conductive organic polymer it may be possible to develop a useful feature for Security Printing and Anti-Counterfeiting Technology (SPACT). Metallic nanoparticle inks are currently used in SPACT to develop covert antennae but the use of an organic material could provide a more economic alternative to these metallic inks. Another interesting feature unique to PANI nanofibers is their ability to be flash welded. Flash welding is a very new discovery but has been documented to make the emeraldine salt state of PANI nonconductive. PANI is a strong absorber of red and infrared light and flash welding is most easily accomplished using wavelength of light in that range. The combination of these two chemical features of PANI could provide a useful benefit to SPACT. This research project focuses on the synthesis, printing, and flash welding of PANI nanofibers while also examining how the chemical features of PANI could be used to aid SPACT.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Jamie Kern

Bio:


2014 B.S. Chemistry, Concordia College


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Synthesis of a Unique Fluorescent Material to Print onto Medications for use in the Anti-Counterfeiting of Pharmaceuticals

  • ABSTRACT:

    Anti-counterfeiting of pharmaceuticals is a widely growing field due to the increased occurrence and sophistication of counterfeit medications. A fluorescent label that can be printed onto medications would provide a simple and efficient means by which an authentic pill may be distinguished from a counterfeit one. As a result, fluorescein inks have been used to print labels onto a variety of medications in order to combat counterfeiting. Fluorescein inks were found to be useful in printing labels onto enteric coated medications, particularly those with a yellow color. Further, it was found that inks could be mixed with the fluorescein to increase the covert nature of printing. The fluorescein-based fluorescent inks were used to print QR code labels onto medications to provide an additional level of security.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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David Langerman

Bio:


2017 B.S. Computer Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Covert Printing of Near IR to Near IR Upconverting Nanoparticle Ink for Integrated Circuit Anti- Counterfeiting Techniques, and Development of an Effective Detection Method

  • ABSTRACT:

    This report details the development of near infrared (NIR) to NIR upconverting nanoparticle inks, as well as the formulation of an effective and fast detection method for the purpose of anti-counterfeiting. A security ink containing lanthanide doped upconverting nanoparticles was synthesized. A tabletop apparatus was designed to collect the 800 nm emission from the ink when excited with a 980 nm light while effectively filtering the 980 nm excitation wavelength. This detection apparatus was successful in collecting a readable QR code using only the 800 nm emission with a 980 nm excitation. This proves that the UCNP inks are a viable method for covert- to – covert security applications. The QR codes have not been successfully read through an integrated circuit (IC) package, but the data suggests that the code could be printed under the surface of a package or another NIR transmissive material and still be read by our detector. The detector apparatus will incorporate all of the aspects of detecting the UCNP ink emissions for possible implementation in industrial as well as distributor environments.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Briana Laubacker

Bio:


2014 B.S. Chemistry, Nazareth College


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Synthesis of water-soluble lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles for security printing applications

  • ABSTRACT:

    Upconverting β-NaYF4: Yb, Er/Tm nanocrystals are being studied for use in security printing applications. Previous work by our group has focused on using these particles with oleate capping ligands in organic ink formulations. However, to be compatible with the ideal parameters for inkjet printing, nanocrystals dispersible in aqueous-based solvents are required. A ligand-exchange process using the hydrophilic capping agents O-phosphorylethanolamine (AEP) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was performed with the β-NaYF4: Yb, Er/Tm nanocrystals. The PAA coordinated particles had better stability in both water and a 20% water, 80% ethylene glycol solvent (EG) system than the AEP coordinated particles. With optimization of the PAA ligand-exchange procedure, the PAA capped β-NaYF4: Yb, Er/Tm nanocrystals will be suitable for use in aqueous ink formulations for inkjet printing of security features.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Sean Long Fox

Bio:


B.S. degree candidate (Metallurgical Engineering), South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Lakota Art Authentication

  • ABSTRACT:

    Many artistic objects have been miss-represented over the years. This causes a misunderstanding of importance and worth. This project seeks to authenticate these artifacts using forensic examination as well as an intellectual investigation. Of consideration are the designs used, methods of construction, and authenticity of period materials. Multispectral visual examination, X-ray fluorescence, Micro CT, Raman Spectroscopy, and Cultural Research are all the tools will be implemented for this project.

  • Project Report
  • Poster


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Ian Markon

Bio:


2014 B.S. Metallurgical Engineering, SD School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Counterfeit Prevention of Microelectronics through Covert Anti-Tamper Microcapsules

  • ABSTRACT:

    The problem of microelectronics counterfeiting has been steadily growing for years, but a recent U.S. Senate hearing on the subject has resulted in a much greater push to curtail the problem. In an effort to produce a technological solution to this problem, a project was begun at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology with the goal of encapsulating upconverting nanoparticles in breakable microcapsules to use as an anti-tamper marking on authentic microelectronics. This portion of the project focused mainly on developing techniques to successfully form microcapsules. Seven microencapsulation trial runs were attempted with the result that complete microcapsules were produced in one of the trials and broken or incomplete microcapsules in at least two other trials.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Shawn McCarther

Bio:


B.S. degree candidate (Metallurgical Engineering), South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Printing Upconverting Nanoparticles using a Piezoelectric Inkjet Printer

  • ABSTRACT:

    Inkjet printing is developing into more than a way to print digital documents onto paper. It is being used in innovative new ways, depositing precise amounts of various substances onto an ever-increasing number of substrates. There are many types of inkjet printers; this research involves ink formulations for piezoelectric inkjet printing. Piezoelectric inkjet printing offers the potential for exceptional print resolution. Ink formulations in this study were analyzed to meet printer requirements and printed to optimize print characteristics. The solvents need to be able to incorporate a significant weight fraction of polymer additive to print a continuous, thin film. Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were added to solution and studied to determine the plausibility of using them in security printing. To achieve effective printing, initial research focused on formulating an ink with the necessary rheological properties. This included viscosity and surface tension measurements; contact angle measurements were also taken. Solvents of ethylene glycol (EG) and water, were found to have the appropriate rheology, but did not always remain stable with a significant weight fraction of polymer additive. A solution of EG and 2-buthoxynethanole with 1 weight fraction Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was found to meet our printer requirements, as well as fully disperse UCNPs; printing is still to be done with this solution.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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George McKinney, Jr.

Bio:


2015 B.S. Applied Physics, Lock Haven University


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Monitoring the Ligand-Nanopartcle Interaction for the Development of SERS Tag Materials

  • ABSTRACT:

    This research provides a fundamental understanding of surface interaction of silver nanoparticles, which are important for the development of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active materials. The effects of ligands on silver nanoparticles were studied via UV-visible spectroscopy. Interaction between 4-methoxybenzoic acid (4-MBA) and silver nanoparticles results in several interesting optical behaviors. With the addition of the 4-MBA ligands, a shift at the silver nanoparticles major peak (440 nm) was observed. Furthermore, a new absorption peak is observed as its intensity increases with the increase in concentration of 4-MBA. We will continue to study their SERS behavior and explore their possible application as tag materials.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Ian Muller

Bio:


2017 B.S. Metallurgical Engineering, MT Tech


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Development of an Integrated Antenna Sensor for the Detection of Cyanide

  • ABSTRACT:

    Cyanide is a poisonous chemical agent potentially causing death within minutes. Cyanide has many industrial uses which increase its availability and hence threat of terrorist use. Therefore, on-site detection of the presence of cyanide or cyanide exposure is of importance for mitigating the effects of cyanide poisoning. The development of the antenna sensor (ANTSOR) for the detection of cyanide identified many key concepts. These principle findings included the identification of two materials successfully conducting electricity before cyanide exposure, and upon exposure to cyanide solution the materials fail to conduct electricity. The implementation of PMMA on the non-sensing area of the antenna was successful. Also, preliminary tests conclusively produced an expected signal shift to indicate the presence of aqueous cyanide.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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DeVaughn Pearson

Bio:


2018 B.S. Industrial Engineering and Management, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
2015 A.A. Business, Oglala Lakota College, Kyle, SD


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Forensic and Cultural Analysis for Authentication of Native American Artifacts

  • ABSTRACT:

    Determining the origin of Native American artifacts is often difficult because Native American history is an oral history. To help determine provenance of an item a cultural and forensic analysis was conducted. This research employed non-destructive testing methods to examine a quiver provided by the Heritage Center at the Red Cloud Indian School. Visual examination of the artifact indicated it was made from materials commonly used by Native Americans to make quivers in the mid- twentieth century. Testing was conducted using modern scientific instrumentation. X-ray fluorescence was used to identify tanning methods through chemical analysis of leather in the quiver. Through this analysis the presence of chromium was confirmed, which indicates chromium tanning. Raman Spectroscopy and transmitted light microscopy were used to identify hair present on the quiver through chemical and optical comparative analysis with known hair samples. Comparative hair analysis results were determined to be inconclusive and the hair on the quiver remains unknown. Testing confirmed those initial findings. Through both a cultural investigation and forensic analysis the Red Cloud quiver was found to be authentic. Furthermore, up-converting nanoparticle based security inks were printed on three common substrates used in contemporary art. Incorporating security-printing technology to contemporary artwork has the potential to revolutionize the Native American art market.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Eduardo Perez

Bio:


2018 B.S. Metallurgical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    The Dispersion Stability of Nanoparticles-based Inks

  • ABSTRACT:

    Security applications for upconverting nanoparticle (UCNP) inks have grown due to increase understanding of how the inks work. One of the main problems with the creation of new ink is that it must undergo quality control testing to be put into the market. This research focused on creating a procedure for testing stability and ways to improve stability of these inks. The shelf life of these upconverting nanoparticle inks was tested using a mass drying test to observe stability. ASTM F2734 was used as a guide to how to accelerate testing of the shelf life of upconverting nanoparticle inks. The control was tested by real-time exposure. The factors tested were the redistribution of UCNPs via shaking the inks and change in temperature. The procedure was initially tested for systematic errors by using silver nanoparticle inks. The data shows the mass of nanoparticles in the ink and the observed mass drop over time. It was found that the nanoparticles remained stable through the various testing condition. Nanoparticles sedimentation may be caused by concentration gradients.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Sierra Rasmussen

Bio:


B.S. degree candidate (Metallurgical Engineering), Missouri Science and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Creating Antennas by Photosintering Silver Nanoparticle Ink on Paper

  • ABSTRACT:

    Silver nanoparticles are a rather novel material with unique optical and electronic properties. Silver nanoparticles can be mixed into an ink formulation and printed onto a substrate. When the silver particles in the ink are sintered, they can conduct a charge, allowing their use in printed electronics such as antennas. However, thermal sintering is generally a high-temperature process and can damage substrates that are sensitive to heat. The purpose of this research is to determine whether it is possible to use silver nanoparticles to print a quick-response code on paper that can function as an antenna when the particles are photonically sintered to create continuous layers of silver.  It was found that photonic sintering does have the ability to sinter silver nanoparticle ink on paper, and the sintered particles had conductivity ranging from .527-1.5 /Ωm, which is sufficient for antenna applications. However, the ink seems to have poor adhesion to the paper substrate and further study will be needed to determine a solution to this.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Jeremiah Richards

Bio:


2017 B.S. Civil Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Authentication of Native American Artifacts

  • ABSTRACT:

    The purpose of this research is to authenticate Native American artifacts. Our research employed a process involving a conscientious approach with respect to each artifact’s spiritual, cultural, and historical significance. The first step involved data acquisition. The second step involved interviews with authoritative members of academia and tribal communities. The third step was characterization utilizing a Visual Spectral Comparator, X-Ray Fluorescence, and Micro-Computed Tomography. By authenticating each item we will contribute to prior knowledge about these artifacts. Through this research we hope to provide a platform that will foster a cross-cultural information exchange to further enhance local relations.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Wesley Romberger

Bio:


2016 B.S. Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Cryptographic Primitives and the future of the SHA-1 Hashing Algorithm

  • ABSTRACT:

    Since its retirement in 2005, a number of different algorithms have been presented as possible substitutes to the SHA-1 hashing algorithm, with the SHA-2 or SHA-3 being the preferable alternatives. The adaptation of the SHA-2 has created an opportunity to create and test alterations of the SHA-1 and comparatively measure the two algorithms. If possible alternatives were created that increased the strength of the SHA-1 algorithm while maintaining a semblance of simplicity, said alternatives could prove a more worthwhile replacement. Several methods of bit manipulation and flow restructuring will be applied in an attempt to produce these results.
    It was found that the alterations made to the algorithm produced hash values at a comparable speed to the original while maintaining reasonable memory usage.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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David Smith

Bio:


2014 B.S. Biochemistry, South Dakota State University


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Authentication of Pharmaceuticals using the Rotation of Plane Polarized Light

  • ABSTRACT:

    Counterfeit pharmaceuticals have become a growing problem in the pharmaceutical industry, resulting in dire consequences. Counterfeit pharmaceuticals can contain incorrect doses of the active ingredient, no active ingredients, or expired medication. Because people often rely on their medications for serious health issues, counterfeits can be harmful, and at times deadly. Currently, the only form of authentication used is overt printing on pill packaging, or bottles, which is relatively easy to duplicate. The use of inks containing “invisible” chiral molecules would allow covert security printing directly on pills. Chiral molecules, which have the ability to rotate plane polarized light, could be detected by the end user to verify the authenticity of drugs. Security inks containing an L-isoleucine derivative with two chiral centers were devised and the initial synthetic steps were performed. The first step of the L-isoleucine derivative synthesis was completed to produce the Di-tert-butyl dicarbonate and methyl ester protected L-isoleucine with a 61% yield. Further synthesis will be carried out to produce the final L-isoleucine derivative.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Kennedy Southwick

Bio:


2016 B.S. Metallurgical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Silver Chloride Ink Formulation for Combined Sensor-Antenna Applications

  • ABSTRACT:

    The goal of this research is to formulate silver chloride (AgCl) nanoparticle ink for antenna sensing applications in security antennas. AgCl undergoes a chemical decomposition in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light, causing the formation of silver, which could be used to alter the resonant frequency of an antenna. Proof of concept was performed by ink formulation and conductivity testing of AgCl reduced to Ag. The synthesis of AgCl nanoparticles of different size and shape was possible by changing the reaction temperature. It was suspected that the adsorption of the capping agent to the particles had decreased as a result of decreasing the temperature leading to agglomeration of the nanoparticles and preventing the formulation of a viable printing ink. The inks in this research were formulated by nanoparticle dispersion and were deposited on glass slides by spin coating. After UV curing, it was found that AgCl did not reduce to a continuous, conductive silver path under the conditions studied here, making the ink unsuitable for the target application. However, a noticeable color change was observed when the ink was cured with UV light, which suggests that the ink could potentially be used as an optically variable ink.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Domingo Tamayo

Bio:


B.S. degree candidate (Physics), South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Authentication of Native American (i.e. Lakota) Artifacts from Circa 1890, 1900

  • ABSTRACT:

    Counterfeit Lakota artifacts pose a significant problem to professional artists, museum curators, collectors, and they misrepresent the Lakota culture and history. Identifying the counterfeit Lakota artifacts is to be determined with a firm understanding of the cultural context, historical referencing and a physical analysis aided by modern analytical tools. The cultural context included interviews with cultural authorities and a developed collection of relevant literature. Historical referencing accounted for period materials of the items and to help parameterize destructive testing. Lastly, the physical analytic tools used were the Visual Spectral Comparator 6000/HS (VSC), an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and a Micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT). The Heritage Center at Red Cloud Indian School (HCRCIS) provided a pair of moccasins allegedly retrieved from the Wounded Knee Massacre and a pouch previously attached to an old Lakota bustle. Though this REU, the moccasins were identified to be plausibly retrieved from the Wounded Knee Massacre and the pouch was identified non-ceremonial in nature though still 100+ years old. The analytic tools identified that there are copper rings and organic material inside the pouch and the moccasins have an understandable amount of lead in the beads with arsenic spotting the item. This work provided a database specific to the Lakota people detailing their culture and history as well as demonstrating how modern technology can aid cultural preservation.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Domingo Tamayo

Bio:


2015 B.S. Physics, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Cultural, Historical, and Physical Analysis of Lakota Artifacts

  • ABSTRACT:
  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Jessica Teeslink

Bio:


2017 B.S., Electrical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Multimodal Biometric Fusion Using Facial Expressions and Voice Recognition

  • ABSTRACT:

    Security issues have become a drastic issue in not only the United States, but the ever changing world today. Falsified memorabilia has produced many security measures to come into effect as an attempt to try and stop the forgery or the ability to form as an imposter. However, this task is a tremendous one to fight. With creating biometric procedures to verify the authenticity of an individual, it becomes harder for outside forces to imitate that. Given that each person’s physical attributes being very specific to themselves. The purpose of this study is to not only take one of the attributes of a person, it is to step up a notch. This would entitle using two different methods; vocal and facial recognition procedures. Fusing these two methods together to produce an authenticity program that would have to not only pass the voice, but the specific movement of the face that corresponds directly to the voice. This would allow a more secure system mainly because it would enforce the user to pass basically two different biometric methods to be verified. This would make it one step more protected, and also more complex to break.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Poster


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Vaughn Vargas

Bio:


2016 B.S., Industrial Engineering and Management, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
2013 A.A. Business Management, Oglala Lakota College, Kyle, SD


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Forensic Analysis of Native American (Lakota) Artifacts

  • ABSTRACT:

    An issue museum curators face is items donated to their organization with an unknown, yet potentially prestigious history. Most of these items come with little to no documentation of authenticity. A larger problem is there is no national database that identifies, documents, and tracks Native American artifacts. The item this project examines is a buffalo horn headdress. Among many Lakota tribes, the buffalo horn headdress is a very prestigious item to bestow upon a Native American leader. What makes this headdress particularly noteworthy is that contains many cavalry buttons. This artifact was donated to the Heritage Center Museum at the Red Cloud Indian High. This headdress is claimed to be 150 years old with a Lakota provenance.
    One method of authentication is cultural investigation to establish the provenance of the artifact. This method takes into consideration factors such as designs, materials, and methods of manufacturing. The technical tools of forensic analysis were the Leica DM 2500 P Modular Polarization Microscope, X-Ray Fluorescence, and Raman Spectroscopy. Covert quick response (QR) codes will be used with security printing technology to demonstrate its effectiveness for making of Native American arts, crafts, and antiquities market.

  • Project Report is not yet available.
  • Testimonial


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Yingfei (Samantha) Wang

Bio:


2017 B.S., Chemical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, MO


Project Info:


  • TITLE:
    Hyperspectral Imaging of NIR-to-Visible Upconversion Luminescence of β-NaYF4 Nanocrystals on Gold Microwell Arrays

  • ABSTRACT:

    Lanthanide doped β-NaYF4 upconverting nanocrystals (UCNC) are some of the best upconverting materials known, and have many applications in areas such as security printing, solar cell technology, bio-imaging, and optical devices. However, they have low upconversion efficiency under low-power excitation, and show surface quenching effects that decrease luminescence intensity. Plasmonic surfaces can enhance the upconversion luminescence of UCNC by concentrating the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the UCNC, while surface quenching effects can be mitigated by adding a shell of updoped NaYF4 to the core UCNC. In this study, Hyperspectral Imaging will be used to compare upconversion luminescence of individual UCNC on and off a gold microwell array (GMA) under varying levels of excitation power. Surface quenching effects in UCNC will also be studied by comparing upconversion luminescence enhancement of core/shell UCNC relative to core UCNC.

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